Hey there, I finished writing a Constitution for one of my nations last night, and I decided that getting criticism from you guys would help me out a lot. For context, this is a mix of the United States and United Kingdom in a pseudo-Victorian world. Thanks in advance for reading!
We, the delegates gathered in the city of Clodcale, on this 45th Day of Summer, in the year 389 of the 3rd Era, establish and commit wholeheartedly to this Constitution for the Republic of Drathmeria.
The capital of the Republic shall be the historic city of Clodcale.
In this city is where the Prime Minister will form his Government. The basis for government will be a bicameral parliament, consisting of a lower and upper house, in which all legislative power will be vested. The Prime Minister shall also have all executive power vested into the office, as well as all matters of state.
The Official Government, headed by the Prime Minister, shall have the explicit power, which cannot be revoked by a new Prime Minister, even with the explicit approval of Parliament to raise taxes, duties, coin money, appoint judges, to provide for an Army and Navy, to name a process of naturalization, to establish post offices, to establish governmental agencies, provide for the punishment of criminals and felons, and to borrow money.
Any new power to be added to the Government must be passed with approval of both Houses of Parliament, and may be revoked by a new Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister will reside in the Lower House of the Parliament, and will form the Government with either an outright majority or with a coalition of other like-minded parties.
The Lower House of Parliament will be composed of individuals chosen every sixth year by the people of the several cities and provinces of the land, in which this individual must of at least 28 years of age, own property in the area they represent, and be a citizen of no less than 5 years of the Republic.
The number of members of the Lower House of Parliament shall be set at 100 members, to rise in a sensible proportion to the citizenry every 15 years.
Inside the Lower House shall be a Speaker, appointed from the ruling party, or leading party in a coalition government, that shall have no vote, save to break a tie, and shall be entrusted to keep order and civility while the House is in session.
A member of the Lower House, once elected, may choose to not sit in Parliament, for whatever reasonable justification.
In the Lower House, there shall be a structure for an Official Opposition, led by a party whose sole objective is to fight the current Government through whatever means legally necessary. There shall also be a structure for unaligned parties or members to congregate, granted they cannot in good conscience align with either the Government, the Government does not extend a chance for a political coalition due to whatever reason, or the Official Opposition.
The power to introduce any legislation shall be vested in the Lower House, after which any approved measure is then passed onto the Upper House for approval.
In the event of a rejection of a previously approved measure by the Upper House, the Lower House may move to void its decision, but only with two-thirds’ approval from the entirety of the Lower House, save for a declaration of war.
The Office of Prime Minister will be filled by the leader of the ruling party, or leading party in a coalition. It will be the Prime Minister’s burden to build a Cabinet at their discretion.
The Government may be voided in a vote of no confidence, put forward by the Official Leader of the Opposition. This vote shall pass with no less than a half of the entire Lower House agreeing, in which a general election shall be called within two seasons.
The Upper House of Parliament will be composed of no less than 30 individuals, appointed at the behest of the Prime Minister, but shall have no less than 3 members of any party in the Lower House that occupies two seats in the Lower House, to ensure a full embodiment of the political landscape of the Republic.
All members of the Upper House will serve for life, or until the member has become incapacitated by age, injury, illness, or any other occupying predicament that they view would hamper their appointed duty.
The power to declare war will fully lie in the Upper House, and a vote with no chance of overturning from the Lower House of Parliament. A vote shall commence on the request of the Prime Minister, but no vote is necessary in the case of a foreign attack or foreign declaration of war.
The Upper House shall see it fit to interrogate and ultimately vote to approve the appointment of unelected government officials, save for other members of the Upper House or members of the Prime Minister’s Cabinet.
There shall be a process to amend this Constitution, in which the Prime Minister must introduce the amendment. This amendment will be debated upon for no less than 3 days, but no more than 15 days. After the period of open debate has ended, the entirety of both Houses of Parliament will vote in a joint session of Parliament. Here, all Members of Parliament, barring any legitimate reason of absence, will vote their conscience upon the amendment. The amendment shall pass with a three-fifths’ majority.
The Government of the Republic, no matter the majority, may be able to take away these rights enshrined to the common citizen:
The freedom of speech: vocal, written, or in any other matter
The freedom of travel
The freedom to participate in the political process through voting, lobbying, joining a political party, forming a political party, or taking a seat in Parliament
The freedom to assemble peaceably
The freedom of protection of a search of their person or home by law enforcement or the military without the presence of a written warrant from a Government judge
The freedom to raise a family
The freedom of religion, no matter the presence of an established church in the Republic
The freedom from being a witness to themself in a trial of law, or from being accused a second time of the same offense
Any freedom inserted here via an amendment