arguing with leftists recently on the topic of the presidential election has brought me a lot of grief on a certain handful of topics; they don't understand what a Republic is or why the founding fathers created the US government as such. I hear a lot from them about how the president should be decided with a system of "1 person one vote" effectively the popular vote deciding things because "why should the minority of people in this country decide who's president!?" Notably this is about how Trump only won 48% of the vote and their misguided criticism of the electoral college system. Outside of the simple retort of "we don't live in a democracy we live in a republic" the issue is, while the electoral college has flaws, the specific "problems" they raise with it are actually the reason for it's existence. A republic like the United States of America is set up not to respect the will of the majority but to protect the right of individual citizens that's the point of our system of representation and the constitution. Our republic is a bit old and is often derided as "outdated" and there's some truth to this, but democracy is an even older more flawed system from the direct democracies like Greece and Athens to representative democracies like the parliamentary system of England what these systems shared is that the loudest people with the most popular ideas, not necessarily the right or the best ones, simply had to get 51% of voters on their side and they could use the government as a tool to force things on the rest of the populous, and if the remaining 49% of citizens have a problem with that they can go fuck themselves. The founding fathers knew of these systems and their problems and that's why they set up a system wherein if say a certain craven female candidate ignores the needs and interests of the people of Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wisconsin an her opponent does even if they do not represent a majority of the total voters they still have a right to representation and a right to not be overruled and drowned out of political discourse by a simple majority. As for why those states and not others remember that in 1980 Regan flipped among other states California, swing states change depending on the issues of the time. Because the founding fathers understood that when a majority rules a majority isn't always right and that certain interested parties, for example socialists, could use a majority appeal to force things on people that suppress their individual liberties, for example socialized healthcare and college.
A republic is similar to a representative democracy except it has a written constitution of basic rights that protect the minority from being completely unrepresented or overridden by the majority.
if you want to know more about the founding fathers opinions on democracy and why they hated it here's a couple of good articles:
and there's a decent [wikipedia article] that collects various criticism of democracy from various philosophers and other men of import throughout history
further reading pdfs:
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
Two Treatise of Government by John Locke
Republic by Plato