The 1st century was the century that lasted from 1 to 100 according to the Julian calendar. (source: wiki)
It is often written as the 1st century AD or 1st century CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC (or BCE) which preceded it.
The 1st century is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.(source: wiki)
Soon after the earthly ministry of Jesus, the Jerusalem church started up at Pentecost with apostles and others totalling some 120 Jews and Jewish proselytes, in an "upper room," believed by some to be the Cenacle, and thus "the first Christian church."
Christian restorationists propose that the 1st century Apostolic Age represents a purer form of Christianity that should be adopted in the church as it exists today.
Early Christianity may be divided in two distinct phases: the apostolic period, when the apostles were leading the congregations, and the post-apostolic Ante-Nicene Period, when imperial persecution of Christians continued until the rise of Constantine the Great.
Soon after the earthly ministry of Jesus, the Jerusalem church began at Pentecost with apostles and others totalling some 120 Jews and Jewish proselytes
The biblical term "proselyte" is an anglicization of the Koine Greek term προσήλυτος (proselytos), as used in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the Greek New Testament for a first century convert to Judaism, generally from Ancient Greek religion. It is a translation of the Biblical Hebrew phrase גר תושב (ger toshav)
And Pilate, summoning the Jews, says to them: You know that my wife is a worshipper of God, and prefers to adhere to the Jewish religion along with you. ... Annas and Caiaphas say to Pilate: All the multitude of us cry out that he [Jesus] was born of fornication, and are not believed; these [who disagree] are proselytes, and his disciples. And Pilate, calling Annas and Caiaphas, says to them: What are proselytes? They say to him: They are by birth children of the Greeks, and have now become Jews.
— Roberts Translation
There are two kinds of proselytes in Rabbinic Judaism; ger tzedek (righteous proselytes, proselytes of righteousness, religious proselyte, devout proselyte) and ger toshav (resident proselyte, proselytes of the gate, limited proselyte, half-proselyte)
A "righteous proselyte" is a gentile who has converted to Judaism, is bound to all the doctrines and precepts of the Jewish religion, and is considered a full member of the Jewish people. The proselyte is circumcised as an adult (milah l'shem giur), if male, and immerses in a mikvah to formally effect the conversion.
A "gate proselyte" is a resident alien who lives in the Land of Israel and follows some of the customs. They are not required to be circumcised nor to comply with the whole of the Torah. They are bound only to conform to the Seven Laws of Noah (do not worship idols, do not blaspheme God's name, do not murder, do not commit fornication (immoral sexual acts), do not steal, do not tear the limb from a living animal, and do not fail to establish rule of law) to be assured of a place in the world to come.
The World To Come
Kalki with his white horse
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
Under Hindu eschatology, the current age is the Kali Yuga, a period of decline. Kalki ('Destroyer of Filth') will appear to purge all evil, beginning a golden age of Satya Yuga.
The name Kalki is derived from the Sanskrit word kalā (कला) which means any practical art, any mechanical or fine art. The closest word in Greek is techne, the root for today's English word of Technology. The ki in Kalki means made of, or made from, signifying that Kalki will be made of the mechanical or technological arts.
The name Kalki may be a metaphor for eternity or time as kalā has the secondary meaning of a part ( of anything) including time or atoms.
HaOlam HaBa, or "the world to come," is an important part of Jewish eschatology, although Judaism concentrates on the importance of HaOlam HaZeh ("this world"). The afterlife is known as Olam haBa, Gan Eden (the Heavenly Garden of Eden) and Gehinom. According to the Talmud, any non-Jew who lives according to the Seven Laws of Noah is regarded as a Ger toshav (righteous gentile), and is assured of a place in the world to come, the final reward of the righteous.
Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami, for example, wrote 400 years ago in his Divya Maha Kala Gnana, or 'Divine Knowledge of the Time,' that Kalki would arrive when the moon, sun, Venus and Jupiter entered the same sign. This is not a rare occurrence and last happened in early 2012, passing without event. The time of arrival of Kalki has not been consistently asserted by astrologers.
Early Christianity and Judaism ( source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity_in_the_1st_century))
Painting by Rembrandt of Paul, one of the most notable of early Christian missionaries, who called himself the "Apostle to the Gentiles." Paul, a Hellenistic Jew, was very influential on the shift of Christianity to Gentile dominated movement.
Jewish messianism has its roots in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, promising a future "anointed" leader or Messiah to resurrect the Israelite "Kingdom of God", in place of the foreign rulers of the time. This corresponded with the Maccabean Revolt directed against the Seleucids. Following the fall of the Hasmonean kingdom, it was directed against the Roman administration of Iudaea Province, which, according to Josephus, began with the formation of the Zealots during the Census of Quirinius of 6 AD.
See also: Rejection of Jesus, Biblical law in Christianity, Sabbath in Christianity, and Paul of Tarsus and Judaism
The early Christians in the 1st century AD believed Yahweh to be the only true God, the god of Israel, and considered Jesus to be the messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Jewish scriptures.** The first Christians were essentially all ethnically Jewish or Jewish proselytes. In other words, Jesus preached to the Jewish people and called from them his first disciples, known as the Limited Commission** of Matthew 10:5-42, while the Great Commission issued after the Resurrection is specifically directed at "all nations".
MAP OF EURASIA 1ST CENTURY AD
During this period Europe, North Africa and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, which continued expanding, most notably conquering Britain under the emperor Claudius (43). The reforms introduced by Augustus during his long reign stabilized the empire after the turmoil of the previous century's civil wars. Later in the century the Julio-Claudian dynasty, which had been founded by Augustus, came to an end with the suicide of Nero in 68. There followed the famous Year of Four Emperors, a brief period of civil war and instability, which was finally brought to an end by Vespasian, ninth Roman emperor, and founder of the Flavian dynasty. The Roman Empire generally experienced a period of prosperity and dominance in this period and the First Century is remembered as part of the Empire's golden age.
The 1st Century saw the appearance of Christianity, following the life of Jesus of Nazareth in the Roman province of Palestine.
China continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty, despite a fourteen-year interruption by the Xin dynasty under Wang Mang. Han rule was restored in 23; Wang Mang's rule represents the watershed between the Western/Former Han and the Eastern/Later Han. The capital was also moved from Chang'an to Luoyang.