[–] reign_ 0 points 14 points (+14|-0) ago 

Families with vaccine-damaged children are being bullied into silence Why, if vaccines are so "safe" and "beneficial," are the whistle-blowers being bullied into silence? Why wouldn't they, in the spirit of safety, conduct more ($$) testing and do so through independent laboratories - not sponsored by big pharma?


[–] dalik 0 points 0 points (+0|-0) ago 

I think people who say vaccines are safe know they're not safe for everyone.

What I think they won't say is it's for the greater good and they accept a few that get hurt compared to to many that don't.


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 9 points (+9|-0) ago 

Influencing Influenza

Originally developed in the 1940s, the influenza vaccine is strongly encouraged for nearly everyone over the age of 6 months. About 170 million doses were expected to be produced for the U.S. market during the 2015/2016 flu season, compared to 32 million in 1990.

Annual vaccination against seasonal influenza reduces protective immunity against more virulent strains. People who are naturally exposed to circulating influenza viruses (the unvaccinated) frequently gain cross-protection against other strains of the disease.

Vaccinated people are denied this benefit.

Preventing infection with seasonal influenza viruses by vaccination might prevent the induction of heterosubtypic immunity to pandemic strains, which might be a disadvantage to immunologically naive people--eg, infants.

Prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring-summer 2009.

These findings may have implications for the general recommendation to vaccinate all healthy children against seasonal influenza.

Annual vaccination may hamper the development of cross-reactive immunity against influenza A viruses of novel subtypes, that would otherwise be induced by natural infection.

The CDC policy of vaccinating pregnant women is not supported by science. Pregnant women vaccinated against seasonal influenza and A-H1N1 swine flu had high rates of spontaneous abortions.

The ACIP's recommendation of influenza vaccination during pregnancy is not supported by citations in its own policy paper (pdf) or in current medical literature. Considering the potential risks of maternal and fetal mercury exposure, the administration of thimerosal during pregnancy is both unjustified and unwise.

The current season's influenza vaccine will not work in people who also received the previous season's vaccine:

In vaccinated subjects with no evidence of prior season vaccination, significant protection (62%) against community-acquired influenza was demonstrated. Substantially lower effectiveness was noted among subjects who were vaccinated in both the current and prior season. There was no evidence that vaccination prevented household transmission once influenza was introduced; adults were at particular risk despite vaccination.

The influenza vaccine is not very effective, causes adverse reactions, and can spread disease to other people. This study (pdf) analyzed 18 years of data and concluded that the influenza vaccine has little or no effectiveness for preventing influenza cases, hospital admissions, or deaths.

Another study determined that “the manufacturers' refusal to release all safety outcome data from trials carried out in young children, together with obvious reporting bias and inconsistencies in the primary studies does not bode well for a fair assessment of the safety of live attenuated vaccines.”

In an assessment of the efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in healthy children, there was “no convincing evidence that vaccines can reduce mortality, admissions, serious complications, and community transmission of influenza.”

Children who receive an inactivated influenza vaccine are significantly more likely than non-vaccinated children to be hospitalized:

We found a threefold increased risk of hospitalization in subjects who did get trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine.

Children vaccinated against seasonal influenza are more likely to develop respiratory virus infections.

Handwashing and teaching proper hygiene may be more effective than vaccines at reducing the spread of influenza and other respiratory viruses:

The disparity in effectiveness between the high profile of influenza vaccines and antivirals and the low profile of physical interventions is striking. Public health recommendations are almost completely based on the use of vaccines and antivirals despite a lack of strong evidence.

We could not correlate increasing vaccination coverage after 1980 with declining mortality rates in any age group...we conclude that observational studies substantially overestimate vaccination benefit.

There is no unbiased scientific evidence that influenza vaccines improve death rates in the elderly.

Vaccinating healthcare workers against influenza to protect their elderly patients is not effective:

Vaccinating healthcare workers who care for those aged 60 or over in long-term institutions showed no effect on laboratory-proven influenza or complications.

Mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers to protect their patients is not supported by science:

The studies aiming to prove the widespread belief that healthcare worker vaccination decreases patient morbidity and mortality are heavily flawed and the recommendations for vaccination biased.

Influenza vaccine studies and their conclusions rarely match the actual data that is in those studies:

Most of our studies (70%) were of poor quality with overoptimistic conclusions—that is, not supported by the data presented. Those sponsored by industry had greater visibility as they were more likely to be published by high impact factor journals and were likely to be given higher prominence by the international scientific and lay media.

There is no good evidence that vaccines reduce serious complications of influenza. Moreover, promotional messages conflate "influenza" (disease caused by influenza viruses) with "flu" (a syndrome with many causes, of which influenza viruses appear to be a minor contributor).

This lack of precision causes physicians and potential vaccine recipients to have unrealistic assumptions about the vaccine's potential benefit, and impedes dissemination of the evidence on nonpharmaceutical interventions against respiratory diseases. In addition, there are potential vaccine-related harms, as unexpected and serious adverse effects of influenza vaccines have occurred.

Closer examination of influenza vaccine policies shows that although proponents employ the rhetoric of science, the studies underlying the policy are often of low quality, and do not substantiate officials’ claims. The vaccine might be less beneficial and less safe than has been claimed, and the threat of influenza appears overstated.

Are US flu death figures more PR than science?

US data on influenza deaths are a mess. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) acknowledges a difference between flu death and flu associated death yet uses the terms interchangeably.

Additionally, there are significant statistical incompatibilities between official estimates and national vital statistics data. Compounding these problems is a marketing of fear—a CDC communications strategy in which medical experts “predict dire outcomes” during flu seasons.


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 9 points (+9|-0) ago 

Strain Replacement & Pathogen Evolution

Ideally, vaccines would provide perfect protection that lasts forever. However, vaccines are imperfect; they confer incomplete immunity.

Mounting evidence indicates that vaccines designed to reduce the growth rate of pathogens within their hosts produce conditions that actually increase pathogen virulence, ultimately preventing eradication of the disease.

Disease-causing organisms strive to maximally infect their hosts without killing them. Vaccines induce the targeted pathogen to adapt and evolve in unintended ways, creating undesirable disease outcomes in individuals and entire host populations.

Herd immunity may never be achieved as vaccination rates impel the pathogen family to avoid extinction by enhancing its hostile nature as it adapts to its new environment:

This evolution can erode any population-wide benefits such that overall mortality rates are unaffected, or even increase, with the level of vaccination coverage.

We find that the use of either anti-growth or anti-transmission vaccines leads to the evolution of pathogens with an increased within-host growth rate; infection of unvaccinated hosts with such evolved pathogens results in high host mortality.

The emergence and spread of mutant pathogens that evade the effects of prophylactic interventions, including vaccines, threatens our ability to control infectious diseases globally.

Vaccines that reduce pathogen replication may select for more virulent pathogens, eroding the benefits of vaccination and putting the unvaccinated at greater risk.

The control of some childhood diseases has proven to be difficult even in countries that maintain high vaccination coverage. This may be due to the use of imperfect vaccines and there has been much discussion on the different modes by which vaccines might fail.

Immunity has been shown to promote virulence:

[Vaccination] accelerated the rate of virulence evolution, rendering parasites more dangerous to naïve hosts. These results argue for further consideration of the evolutionary consequences for pathogen virulence of vaccination.

Vaccines that target some but not all strains of a disease can induce the emergence of other strains that become more prominent as they replace previous ones.

Often, the new strains are more virulent and may infect age groups normally unaffected by the disease.

Haemophilus influenzae

A vaccine targeting the “b” strain of Haemophilus influenzae was recommended for infants in 1991. Mass vaccinations against Hib increased deadly infections caused by the “a” strain and other non-b strains.

Adults and the elderly have also become more susceptible to invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease following Hib vaccinations of children:

After the introduction of Hib immunization in children, invasive Hib infections in unimmunized adults also declined, but the overall rate of invasive Hi disease in adults increased.

Specifically, deadly infections from Haemophilus influenzae type “a” have increased, turning it into a “major invasive bacterial disease.”

In addition, the incidence of Hia meningitis increased 8-fold within one year after a vaccination program against Hib was initiated.

Several of the new strains are severe. More than one-third of Hif cases and one-fifth of the non-typeable cases require intensive care:

The clinical burden of invasive non-type “b” H. influenzae disease, measured as days of hospitalization/100,000 individuals at risk and year, increased significantly throughout the study period.

Vaccination against Hib has altered the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections. Prior to infant vaccination against Hib, 65% of all Haemophilus influenzae cases were caused by the “b” strain. Now, 84% of all cases are now caused by the “f” strain and other non-b strains.

Since the introduction of the Hib vaccine, there have been more fatal cases of non-Hib infections in the elderly:

The epidemiological characteristics of invasive H. influenzae disease have changed from a disease that predominantly affects children and is dominated by type b to a disease that predominantly affects adults and is dominated by non-typeable strains.

The increased cases of virulent non-b Haemophilus influenzae among adults could be caused by the loss of cross-immunity that was provided by natural exposure to Hib or from changes in the organisms.

Invasive non-b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are more virulent, causing severe disease in the pediatric population. These non-typeable strains are resistant to antibiotics.

Pneumococcal disease

The Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogen has more than 90 different strains. In 2000, a vaccine that targeted 7 of these strains was recommended for infants. In 2010, a new vaccine was introduced that targeted 13 pneumococcal strains.

Pneumococcal disease rates initially declined following the vaccine's release, but then increased when non-vaccine strains quickly replaced strains targeted by the vaccine. Many of these new strains are highly virulent and resistant to antibiotics.

Pneumococcal vaccination of children also significantly increased the risk of the disease in adults. Vaccine-induced pneumococcal strains are now a worldwide problem, posing a threat to the long-term effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination.

Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults have increased significantly:

Gains in disease reduction were offset by increases in replacement serotypes, particularly among the over-65 age group.

Although the vaccine was effective against some strains, “the emergence of replacement nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has resulted in an increase in the incidence of serious and invasive infections.”

The increase in carriage of non-vaccine serotypes, and the consequent increase in invasive disease, could reduce, negate or outweigh the benefit.

Adults are especially at risk of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine-induced replacement serotypes, but infants have been affected as well.

There is evidence that antibiotic-resistant strains of invasive pneumococcal disease have arisen from recombinations of vaccine and non-vaccine strains.

Due to strain replacement, the overall pneumococcal rate hasn't changed. Also, the new vaccine that targets 13 strains “did not affect the rate of overall pneumococcal colonization.”

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) that are currently in use only protect against some serotypes of the bacterium, and there is now strong evidence that those serotypes not included in the vaccine increase in prevalence among most vaccinated populations.

Just two years after PCV13 was introduced, 94% of all pneumococcal strains in healthy children were non-vaccine targeted serotypes. PCV13 is expected to induce strain replacement like that seen with PCV7.

Strain replacement is inevitable when vaccines only target some of the many strains that are in competition with each other.


[–] SkinnyMagna 0 points 5 points (+5|-0) ago 

Thanks very much! Mind if I compile this to PDF?


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 2 points (+2|-0) ago 

do it!


[–] albatrosv15 0 points 0 points (+0|-0) ago 

So where's the pdf?


[–] heuristic 0 points 0 points (+0|-0) ago 

I'm going to work on this soon


[–] BlowjaySimpson 1 points -1 points (+0|-1) ago  (edited ago)

I am his internet lawyer. That intellectual property will be $500 in BTC please.


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 8 points (+8|-0) ago 

Measles Mania

Measles is a contagious disease caused by a virus that affects the respiratory system, skin and eyes.

Complications from the disease are unlikely, and previously healthy children usually recover without incident. However, measles can be dangerous in populations newly exposed to the virus and in malnourished children living in undeveloped countries.

A measles vaccine was introduced in the 1960's, and it was combined with vaccines for mumps and rubella in a single MMR shot.

People who are vaccinated against measles can still get the disease, and measles can be transmitted from a fully vaccinated person to other fully vaccinated individuals.

Measles vaccine failures cause outbreaks of the disease, raising “important questions concerning the relative contributions of vaccine failure versus failure to vaccinate.”

Loss of immunity after receiving the MMR vaccine, combined with viral shedding, may spread disease and prevent herd immunity:

If wild virus can be spread via individuals with subclinical infections, it is doubtful whether population immunity (herd immunity), which is necessary to eliminate the three diseases, can be attained in large populations.

Fevers induced by measles vaccination are related to the replication and shedding of the live vaccine virus, “showing that subcutaneous injection of an attenuated measles strain can result in respiratory excretion of this virus.”

Only molecular genotyping can distinguish between wild-type and vaccine-related disease.

Emergency room visits are significantly more common in children who recently received the MMR vaccine:

There are significantly elevated risks of primarily emergency room visits approximately one to two weeks following 12 and 18 month vaccination.

Young children have an increased risk of requiring emergency care after MMR. This is especially true for girls, who “may have an increased reactogenicity to the MMR vaccine.”

Vaccine-related deaths have been associated with mumps as well, as a study has observed "devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus in the brain of a child."

A toddler who developed severe neurological symptoms including blindness associated with chronic encephalitis and died following MMR vaccination was found to have vaccine-derived mumps virus in his brain.

Contracting diseases like measles and mumps naturally in childhood may have lifelong health benefits, including a significant protection against heart attacks and strokes during adulthood:

Measles and mumps, especially in case of both infections, were associated with lower risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease.

The results of this study may be explained by the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that infections suffered during childhood are necessary for normal development of the immune system.

Many autistic children have elevated levels of antibodies to the measles virus but not to other viruses. “An inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component thereof, might be related to pathogenesis of autism.” As a result, a large number of autism cases may stem from neurological symptoms due to an atypical measles virus infections following MMR vaccination.


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 8 points (+8|-0) ago 

Selling Varicella

Chickenpox is a contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus.

Before the chickenpox vaccine was introduced in 1995, it was common for doctors to recommend exposing children to the disease because it is generally benign in childhood and complication rates increase when it is contracted by teenagers or adults.

When people regain their health after contracting chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the body. Later, when immunity weakens, the virus can become active again and cause shingles, also known as herpes zoster.

Immunity against shingles is strengthened by periodic exposures to the varicella virus. Before the chickenpox vaccine, frequent encounters with the varicella virus boosted antibody protection against shingles. Although chickenpox cases decreased after the introduction of the vaccine, this restricted opportunities to reinforce immunity and increased the rate of shingles.

Medical costs, pain, and suffering associated with shingles generally are much greater than with chickenpox. To address this problem, the maker of the chickenpox vaccine, Merck & Co. has developed and released a shingles vaccine.

In addition to causing a dramatic rise in shingles, the vaccine becomes less effective as rates increase. This is due to a reduction in opportunities for natural boosts to immunity which occur from exposure to people who are shedding the wild varicella virus.

In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)--these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities.

Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased herpes zoster morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to provide long-term protection from varicella zoster virus disease.

In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored and promoted studies that showed positive outcomes of varicella vaccination but opposed, and attempted to block, publication of findings that were critical of the vaccination program.


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 7 points (+7|-0) ago 

Pushing Pertussis

The first pertussis vaccine was introduced in the 1930's to treat whooping cough.

The recent resurgence in pertussis infections is put down to a combination of waning immunity and new mutations in the pathogen that existing vaccines are unable to effectively control.

The pertussis vaccine has encouraged evolutionary adaptation, permitting virulent vaccine-resistant strains of pertussis to emerge.

People who are vaccinated against pertussis may be silent carriers of the disease and capable of infecting others. For example, baboons vaccinated against pertussis became carriers and spread the disease.

Because people who are vaccinated against pertussis can still spread the disease, herd immunity and eradication are virtually unattainable:

Asymptomatic transmission is the most parsimonious explanation for many of the observations surrounding the resurgence of B. pertussis in the US and UK. These results have important implications for B. pertussis vaccination policy and present a complicated scenario for achieving herd immunity and B. pertussis eradication.

Fully-vaccinated children are still susceptible to pertussis:

Pertussis has increased in the U.S. since the 1980s despite high coverage with pertussis childhood vaccines. Protection from the DtaP series beings to wane after vaccination, contributing to the accumulation of vaccinated individuals who are still susceptible to disease.

Since protection after vaccination wanes within 2 to 4 years, “lack of long-term protection after vaccination is contributing to increases in pertussis among adolescents.”

New strains of pertussis toxins have emerged subsequent to pertussis vaccination:

Global transmission of new strains is very rapid and the worldwide population of B. pertussis is evolving in response to vaccine introduction.

The vaccine is not effective against these virulent new strains:

Vaccines designed to reduce pathogen growth rate and/or toxicity may result in the evolution of pathogens with higher levels of virulence...waning immunity and pathogen adaptation have contributed to the resurgence of pertussis.

Since Pertussis has “no non-human hosts or environmental niche, vaccine-mediated immunity is the most likely selective pressure against Bordetella pertussis.”

Significant changes in B. pertussis populations have been observed after the introduction of vaccinations, suggesting a role for pathogen adaptation in the persistence and resurgence of pertussis.

Pertussis vaccine failures are due to genetic changes in pertussis strains and poor efficacy, not because too many people are unvaccinated.

When the acellular pertussis vaccine (DtaP) replaced the whole cell pertussis vaccines (DTP) in the 1990s, the World Health Organization created an official standard method to define cases of pertussis.

The new definition was excessively restrictive, requiring laboratory confirmation and at least 21 days of paroxysmal cough. As a result, legitimate cases of pertussis were eliminated and the efficacy of the vaccine was artificially inflated.

The universal use of pertussis vaccines has been associated with genetic changes in circulating B. pertussis strains...with DTaP vaccines, genetic change should be a major concern regarding vaccine efficacy.

Acellular pertussis vaccines are designed to protect against pertactin, however, pertactin-negative mutations have emerged in Japan, France, Finland, Australia and the United States.

DtaP vaccination to protect children from B. pertussis increases their risk of whooping cough from B. parapertussis.

B. parapertussis infections contribute significantly to the overall pertussis burden and contribute to the pool of children thought to have vaccine failure.

Another study concluded that "aP vaccination interferes with the optimal clearance of B. parapertussis and enhances the performance of this pathogen," resulting in "an approximately 40-fold increase in B. parapertussis lung colony-forming units."

Pertussis vaccines also do not protect against whooping cough caused by B. holmesii.

The imperfect immunity given by pertussis vaccines is causing outbreaks of whooping cough in highly vaccinated populations:

The fact that populations of B. pertussis may have evolved to circumvent the immune responses elicited by vaccination and to alter their virulence levels raises a number of questions concerning the design and use of future vaccines.


[–] axolotl__peyotl [S] 0 points 7 points (+7|-0) ago 

Hyping HPV

Human papillomavirus is a sexually-transmitted virus with more than 100 subtypes. Although most infections cause no symptoms and resolute spontaneously, in some cases they can result in precancerous lesions.

In 2006, the FDA approved a new HPV vaccine for 9 to 26-year-old women. The vaccine protects against 4 of the 100 strains of HPV. Another HPV vaccine, produced by a U.K. manufacturer, is also available in many parts of the world.

Young teenage girls have no risk of dying from cervical cancer, but they gamble with permanently disabling autoimmune or degenerative disorders, or death, following their HPV vaccines:

The present study provides epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between HPV4 vaccine administration and serious autoimmune adverse events.

For example, women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, a serious autoimmune disease, were 5 times more likely that controls to have received the HPV vaccine (odds ratio, OR=5.3).

Women diagnosed with alopecia (OR=8.3), gastroenteritis (OR=4.6), vasculitis (OR=4.0), and central nervous system conditions (OR=1.8) were also significantly more likely than controls to have received the HPV vaccine.

Based on the current data, a causal link between HPV vaccination and onset or relapse of systemic lupus erythematosus is plausible.

Death after Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Causal or Coincidental? (pdf)

Our study suggests that HPV vaccines containing HPV-16L1 antigens pose an inherent risk for triggering potentially fatal auto-immune vasulopathies.

The HPV vaccine has been linked to chronic pain, fatigue and nervous system damage:

Adverse reactions appear to be more frequent after HPV vaccination when compared to other type of immunizations. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between HPV vaccination and the development of these difficult to diagnose painful dysautonomic syndromes.

Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis may be a suitable diagnosis for patients with severe and persistent suspected side effects to the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. (pdf)

Damage to the autonomic nervous system has been consistently reported after HPV vaccination, causing muscle weakness, pain, fatigue, and menstrual problems.

A relatively high incidence of chronic limb pain, frequently complicated by violent, tremulous involuntary movements, has been noted in Japanese girls following HPV vaccination.

Some girls develop premature ovarian insufficiency after HPV vaccination, which may affect childbearing. Current HPV vaccine safety research is inadequate to determine ovarian safety.

Further work is urgently needed to elucidate the potential for a causal link between the vaccine and circulatory abnormalities and to establish targeted treatment options for the affected patients.

The HPV vaccine may cause autoimmunity and ovarian failure:

We documented here the evidence of the potential of the HPV vaccine to trigger a life-disabling autoimmune condition. The increasing number of similar reports of post HPV vaccine-linked autoimmunity and the uncertainty of long-term clinical benefits of HPV vaccination are a matter of public health that warrants further rigorous inquiry.

Clinical trials and marketing tactics by the HPV vaccine manufacturer may not be trustworthy:

The poor design of existing vaccine safety and efficacy trials may be reflective of the fact that in the past two decades the pharmaceutical industry has gained unprecedented control over the evaluation of its own products.

Coercive tactics such as vaccine mandates that are supported solely by vaccine manufactures' own data is unacceptable.

The HPV vaccine manufacturer aggressively lobbied legislators to mandate their vaccine for school entry, drafted the legislation, provided the science, and made financial contributions to lawmakers.

There is no significant evidence showing that HPV vaccination can prevent cervical cancer, and the long-term benefits are based on assumptions, not reliable research data:

Current worldwide HPV immunization practices appear to be neither justified by long-term health benefits nor economically viable, nor is there any evidence that HPV vaccination (even if proven effective against cervical cancer) would reduce the rate of cervical cancer beyond what Pap screening has already achieved.

The FDA licensed the HPV vaccine based on safety and efficacy studies that were designed, sponsored and conducted by the vaccine manufacturer.

We find that HPV vaccine clinical trials design, and data interpretation of both efficacy and safety outcomes, were largely inadequate. Additionally, we note evidence of selective reporting of results from clinical trials. Given this, the widespread optimism regarding HPV vaccines long-term benefits appears to rest on a number of unproven assumptions and significant misinterpretation of available data.

Likewise, the notion that HPV vaccines have an impressive safety profile is only supported by highly flawed design of safety trials and is contrary to accumulating evidence from vaccine safety surveillance databases and case reports which continue to link HPV vaccination to serious adverse outcomes (including death and permanent disabilities).

We thus conclude that further reduction of cervical cancers might be best achieved by optimizing cervical screening (which carries no such risks) and targeting other factors of the disease rather than by the reliance on vaccines with questionable efficacy and safety profiles.

HPV vaccine safety and efficacy claims are at odds with factual evidence:

Whilst 12-year-old preadolescents are at zero risk of dying from cervical cancer, they are faced with a risk of death and a permanently disabling lifelong autoimmune or neurodegenerative condition from a vaccine that thus far has not prevented a single case of cervical cancer, let alone cervical cancer death.


[–] reign_ 0 points 5 points (+5|-0) ago 

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